Упражнение 77 Unit 1
ГДЗ Enjoy English 11 класс
(2018) - ответы
Journalist: Hello, everybody. Today we are talking about one of the hot issues of our time: migration. Nowadays people from different countries do not always stay where they are and instead move to other parts of the world. What are some the reasons for this happening? We are asking our guest, a well-known sociologist Peter Darcy to comment on this popular topic.
Sociologist: Hello, let me first start with some terms. Sociologists have long analysed migration and have developed the "push-pull" model. This model differentiates between "push factors" that drive people to leave home and "pull factors" that attract migrants to a new location. Push factors occur within the sending states, that is, those that send migrants abroad, while pull factors occur within the receiving states, or those that receive immigrants from abroad.
Journalist: It all sounds very scientific and rather complicated to me.
Sociologist: Okay. I'll try to rephrase it. Push factors are the negative aspects of the sending country, while pull factors are the positive aspects of the receiving country. In fact, they are really two sides of the same coin. Migrants move not only because they see a lack of benefits at home but also because they see more benefits abroad, otherwise the move would not be worthwhile.
Journalist: Now I see. So people are analysing what they are losing and what they are getting when they move to another country.
Sociologist: Exactly! But sometimes push factors leave people with no choice but to leave their country of origin. For example, two of the most serious push factors driving people to emigrate from their home country are lack of jobs and poverty. In fact, it's really just economics that provides the main reason behind migration. In some countries, jobs simply do not exist for a great deal of the population. In others, the gap between the wages provided in the sending country as compared to the receiving country is great. India has recently experienced a surge in emigration due to a combination of these factors.
Journalist: So I understand that economic problems have always been one of the main reasons for migration. What are some of the other factors you consider important?
Sociologist: Of course there are war conflicts, and political and religious persecution. Some of these migrants end up in receiving countries as refugees or asylum seekers. The 1951 Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees defined the qualifications for such migrants so that these types of newcomers would not be returned to places where they could be persecuted again.
Journalist: Are there any other global problems that make people migrate?
Sociologist: There is a factor that may sound new but actually is very old and that is environmental problems. Environmental problems and natural disasters often cause the loss of money, homes, and jobs. In the middle of the 19tb century, for example, Ireland experienced a famine never before seen in its history. By late autumn of i 845. the main staple of the Irish diet, the potato, was practically wiped out. People started to die of starvation. The famine killed hundreds of thousands and forced millions of Irish to flee. As a resuit. the large population of Americans and Canadians of Irish descent, especially in Boston, New York, and Chicago, can trace its ancestry to this period
Journalist: Yes, I kno>* about this only too well since my family is of Irish descent. They left Ireland at that time and settled in Boston. So now that we see what makes people leave their homes, let's talk about how they choose their destination, or receiving country, as you put it. What makes them choose one country over another?
Sociologist: Right, so this question leads us to more discussion about pull factors. The first, and often the most important reasons, are higher standards of living and higher wages. People who move to more developed countries will often find that the same work they were doing at home is often awarded higher wages abroad. They will also find a greater safety net of welfare benefits should they be unable to work.
Journalist: It's pretty obvious that migrants would try to maximise their benefits in the new country. But could it be a problem for them to find jobs?
Sociologist: Sometimes it can, but almost all developed countries have found that they need migrant labour in some form or another. Rich economics create millions of jobs that domestic workers often refuse to fill.
Journalist: Well, thank you, Peter, for your » comments. We'll continue our conversation...
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