Упражнение 9 Unit 3 рабочей тетради
ГДЗ English Михеева 9 класс - ответы
The Fascinating History of Cleanliness
Katherine Ashenburg, a Canadian writer, is the author of the book “An Unsanitised History of Washing”. Katherine says that she is not a clean-freak. Her interest in writing the book didn’t come from cleanliness as much as from her curiosity about the everyday lives of people in past ages.
In her new book Katherine Ashenburg writes that while our ancestors’ bathing habits might disgust us, our bathing habits would also disgust them. The seventeenth-century Frenchman never had a hot shower, because after the Black Plague in the 14th century, the French thought that hot baths made one ill. For 200 years Europeans avoided hot baths. While some cultures consider body odour offensive, others find it attractive.
For the modern, middle-class North American, clean means that you shower and apply deodorant every day without fail. For the aristocratic seventeenth-century Frenchman, it meant that he changed his linen shirt daily and splashed his hands in water but never touched the rest of his body with water or soap.
For the Roman in the 1st century, it involved two or more hours of splashing, soaking and steaming the body in water of various temperatures and giving himself a final oiling — all done daily, in company and without soap.
Every culture defines cleanliness for itself, choosing what it sees as perfect. The modern North American, the seventeenth-century Frenchman and the Roman were each convinced that cleanliness was an important marker of civility and that only his way to achieve it was the right one.
Hygiene has always been a convenient stick with which to beat other peoples, who never seem to get it right. The outsiders usually err on the side of dirtiness. The ancient Egyptians thought that sitting a dusty body in still water, as the Greeks did, was a bad idea. Late-nineteenth-century Americans were scandalised by the dirtiness of Europeans. The Nazis promoted the idea of Jewish uncleanliness. At least since the Middle Ages, European travellers have enjoyed nominating the continent’s dirtiest country — the glory usually went to France or Spain. Sometimes Europeans regarded some people as suspiciously too clean — which is how the Muslims, who scoured their bodies, struck them (Europeans) for centuries. The Muslims returned the compliment, saying that Europeans are absolutely filthy.
1) The author of the book “An Unsanitised History of Washing” was interested in the way people lived in the previous centuries
a) the problems of cleanliness
b) what our ancestors understood by cleanliness
c) the way people lived in the previous centuries
2) In the 17th century French people never had a hot shower because they were afraid to get some disease
a) they found it disgusting
b) they liked body odour
c) they were afraid to get some disease
3) In the 17th century French people of the aristocratic families didn’t wash their bodies daily
a) didn’t wash their bodies daily
b) washed their shirts daily
c) didn’t change their shirts every day
4) In the 1st century the Romans never used soap while taking their baths.
a) never used hot water
b) never used soap
c) never washed with other people present
5) Cleanliness for modern, middle-class North American means daily use of deodorant and daily shower without exception
a) daily shower
b) daily use of deodorant
c) daily use of deodorant and daily shower without exception
6) Many nations regard cleanliness as a means that shows the level of civility.
a) accept only their own idea of cleanliness
b) criticize all the ideas of cleanliness but their own
c) regard cleanliness as a means that shows the level of civility
7) Since the Middle Ages European travellers have been trying to define the continent’s dirtiest country and usually chose two countries of Europe as such.
a) usually chose two countries of Europe as such
b) never have been able to do it
c) usually chose Spain
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